From a policy standpoint, I believe CSNet was unique.
The CSNet project had explicit permission from Arpa (the project started in
1979) for adding its phonenet sites to the Arpa community. In those days,
joining the Arpanet required explicit permission from Arpa for each new
site. Arpa formally delegated authority to CSNet (after reviewing its
membership rules; CSNet was limited to computer science research and
academic organizations.) Hence, Arpa did not need to be consulted for each
new CSNet site.
However, yes, uucp email relaying -- especially through Berkeley -- was
relatively common at that time, with BITNET become a major player also
around that time.
At 09:19 AM 1/24/2002 -0800, Christian Huitema wrote:
As well as a number of gateways using UUCP, BITNET or even X.400...
> From: vint cerf [mailto:vinton(_dot_)g(_dot_)cerf(_at_)wcom(_dot_)com]
> yes - Phone Net (University of Delaware developed) and the Telenet X.25)
> At 11:03 AM 1/24/2002 -0500, Michael Hammer wrote:
> >Quick question: Could one university communicate to another university
> without going through the ARPANET?
Dave Crocker <mailto:dcrocker(_at_)brandenburg(_dot_)com>
Brandenburg InternetWorking <http://www.brandenburg.com>
tel +1.408.246.8253; fax +1.408.273.6464