On 27/10/16 23:29, Jon Callas wrote:
On Oct 27, 2016, at 1:29 AM, Peter Goldstein <peter(_at_)valimail(_dot_)com>
Those guidelines ... specify that receivers MUST validate
signatures of 512 to 2048 bits, but are not required to validate
signatures with longer keys - may be worth revisiting given
advances in computing power, the increasing importance of DKIM as
an element of email authentication, and the reuse of these
guidelines in other proposals (i.e. ARC).
I'd like to suggest that it may be a good idea to increase the
upper value to 4096 or even 8192, to ensure that the standard is
compatible with best practices going forward.
I don't object to increasing it in the standard, but operationally I
don't think it's a good idea. Per-message processing cost is one
reason, but the larger one is the semantic value of a DKIM signature,
and what it is trying to do.
DKIM is a conversation between two administrative domains, and a
signature only states that an administrative domain is taking
responsibility for placing the message in the message stream. Nothing
That assurance comes at a cost of whatever integrity that assigns to
a message that might have been unintended. That message integrity is
a privacy loss by the users.
The real-world case in point is the leaked Podesta emails, where some
people have asserted that authenticity can be checked via the DKIM
signatures. I've raised an eyebrow on that, and the bottom line is
that you're presuming that attackers were sophisticated enough to
steal the email, yet unsophisticated enough that stealing the DKIM
key from an MTA is out of the question.
The full discussion is pretty nuanced, and I think the relevant part
here is that if an administrative domain wants to protect the privacy
of its users, it should be using *smaller* DKIM keys, not larger
ones. I think I could convincingly argue that a privacy-friendly
email provider is better off using 512 bit keys (where there's a
chance of spam forgery) than 4K keys (where there's a chance of
ruining the privacy of the customers). Now actually, I think the
sweet spot for key size is above 512, but it's lower than 768. For
maximum balance, you want the key to take longer than a week to
crack, but less than a year, and change it every month. Or something
like that. You get the idea.
I think the property you're aiming for is to not damage
deniability? If not, then can you explain.
I don't think a just-about-dodgy-rsa-length is a good
way to try get that because:
- it's extremely algorithm specific - other algs don't
have similar properties (and it'd be a horribly bad idea
to define 'em)
- it'd be vulnerable to an actual factorisation during
the operational lifetime of a key pair, which is not a
thing we can easily evaluate (more or less damage to
- no matter that the semantics of a DKIM signature are
well defined to (try to) not damage deniability, we
can't stop people from associating other semantics with
signatures, of any length - IOW, so long as the factorisation
of a modulus isn't known, deniability is damaged
The only up-side of your suggestion I can see is that
it would keep some bad actors busy.
Instead, I'd point out that this can be handled, even now,
by simply rolling to a new key and then shortly publishing
the private key used to sign the messages. That way Podesta
could deny the content once more, at least at the crypto
Whether or not publishing private keys would be something
that the community would do is a fine question, but it'd be
a better approach. (I forget, and didn't look back to see,
if someone suggested this before for DKIM, I think I recall
that someone may have though.)
Releasing the private key when you're done with it, is also
nicely algorithm independent so if we wanted to take that
route that would not prevent us moving DKIM to eddsa to get
the nice benefits that offers over RSA.
I could imagine us writing an RFC about why and how to do
DKIM signature key rollover and private key publication and
would be happy to help if there were a chance it'd get some
In any event, I don't object to changing it, but I do think that if
someone's going to implement long keys, they're going to get
criticism about enabling surveillance of their users.
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